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Openstack之路(六)创建云主机实例

来源:  2019-04-19 17:01:11    评论:0点击:

创建云主机流程

Openstack之路(六)创建云主机实例

  1. 当访问Dashboard的时候,会显示一个登录页面,Dashboard会告诉你,想使用Openstack创建云主机?那你得先把你的账号密码交给我,我去Keystone上验证你的身份之后才能让你登录。
  2. Keystone接收到前端表单传过来的域,用户名,密码信息以后,到数据库查询,确认身份后将一个Token返回给该用户,让这个用户以后再进行操作的时候就不需要再提供账号密码,而是拿着Token来。
  3. Horizon拿到Token之后,找到创建云主机的按钮并点击,填写云主机相关配置信息。点击启动实例后,Horizon就带着三样东西(创建云主机请求、云主机配置相关信息、Keystone返回的Token)找到Nova-API。
  4. Horizon要创建云主机?你先得把你的Token交给我,我去Keystone上验证你的身份之后才给你创建云主机。
  5. Keystone一看Token发现这不就是我刚发的那个吗?但程序可没这么聪明,它还得乖乖查一次数据库,然后告诉Nova-API,这兄弟信得过,你就照它说的做吧。
  6. Nova-API把Horizon给的提供的云主机配置相关写到数据库(Nova-DB)。
  7. 数据库(Nova-DB)写完之后,会告诉Nova-API,哥,我已经把云主机配置相关信息写到我的数据库里啦。
  8. 把云主机配置相关信息写到数据库之后,Nova-API会往消息队列(RabbitMQ)里发送一条创建云主机的消息。告诉手下的小弟们,云主机配置相关信息已经放在数据库里了,你们给安排安排咯。
  9. Nova-Schedular时时观察着消息队列里的消息,当看到这条创建云主机的消息之后,就要干活咯。
  10. 要创建云主机,但它要看一看云主机都要什么配置,才好决定该把这事交给谁(Nova-Compute)去做,所以就去数据库去查看了
  11. 数据库收到请求之后,把要创建云主机的配置发给Nova-Schedular
  12. Nova-Schedular拿到云主机配置之后,使用调度算法决定了要让Nova-Compute去干这个事,然后往消息队列里面发一条消息,某某某Nova-Compute,就你了,给创建一台云主机,配置都在数据库里。
  13. Nova-Compute时时观察着消息队列里的消息,当看到这条让自己创建云主机的消息之后,就要去干活咯。注意:本应该直接去数据库拿取配置信息,但因为Nova-Compute的特殊身份,Nova-Compute所在计算节点上全是云主机,万一有一台云主机被******从而控制计算节点,直接***是很危险的。所以不能让Nova-Compute知道数据库在什么地方
  14. Nova-Compute没办法去数据库取东西难道就不工作了吗?那可不行啊,他不知道去哪取,但Nova-Conductor知道啊,于是Nova-Compute往消息队列里发送一条消息,我要云主机的配置相关信息,Nova-Conductor您老人家帮我去取一下吧。
  15. Nova-Conductor时时观察着消息队列里的消息,当看到Nova-Conductor发的消息之后,就要去干活咯。
  16. Nova-Conductor告诉数据库我要查看某某云主机的配置信息。
  17. 数据库把云主机配置信息发送给Nova-Conductor。
  18. Nova-Conductor把云主机配置信息发到消息队列。
  19. Nova-Compute收到云主机配置信息。
  20. Nova-Compute读取云主机配置信息一看,立马就去执行创建云主机了。首先去请求Glance-API,告诉Glance-API我要某某某镜像,你给我吧。
  21. Glance-API可不鸟你,你是谁啊?你先得把你的Token交给我,我去Keystone上验证你的身份之后才给你镜像。Keystone一看Token,兄弟,没毛病,给他吧。
  22. Glance-API把镜像资源信息返回给Nova-Compute。
  23. Nova-Compute拿到镜像后,继续请求网络资源,首先去请求Neutron-Server,告诉Neutron-Server我要某某某网络资源,你给我吧。
  24. Neutron-Server可不鸟你,你是谁啊?你先得把你的Token交给我,我去Keystone上验证你的身份之后才给你网络。Keystone一看Token,兄弟,没毛病,给他吧。
  25. Neutron-Server把网络资源信息返回给Nova-Compute。
  26. Nova-Compute拿到网络后,继续请求存储资源,首先去请求Cinder-API,告诉Cinder-API我要多少多少云硬盘,你给我吧。
  27. Cinder-API可不鸟你,你是谁啊?你先得把你的Token交给我,我去Keystone上验证你的身份之后才给你网络。Keystone一看Token,兄弟,没毛病,给他吧。
  28. Cinder-API把存储资源信息返回给Nova-Compute。
  29. Nova-Compute拿到所有的资源后(镜像、网络、存储),其实Nova-Compute也没有创建云主机的能力,他把创建云主机的任务交给了Libvird,然后创建云主机(KVM/ZEN)

创建云主机网络

  • 在控制节点上,加载admin凭证来获取管理员能执行的命令访问权限
[root@linux-node1 ~]# source admin-openrc
  • 创建网络
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack network create --share --external \
--provider-physical-network provider \
--provider-network-type flat provider
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | UP                                   |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2018-01-22T06:05:17Z                 |
| description               |                                      |
| headers                   |                                      |
| id                        | d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 |
| ipv4_address_scope        | None                                 |
| ipv6_address_scope        | None                                 |
| mtu                       | 1500                                 |
| name                      | provider                             |
| port_security_enabled     | True                                 |
| project_id                | 14055178975d417987c5a94f030c7acf     |
| project_id                | 14055178975d417987c5a94f030c7acf     |
| provider:network_type     | flat                                 |
| provider:physical_network | provider                             |
| provider:segmentation_id  | None                                 |
| revision_number           | 4                                    |
| router:external           | External                             |
| shared                    | True                                 |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tags                      | []                                   |
| updated_at                | 2018-01-22T06:05:18Z                 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron net-list
+--------------------------------------+----------+---------+
| id                                   | name     | subnets |
+--------------------------------------+----------+---------+
| d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 | provider |         |
+--------------------------------------+----------+---------+
  • 在网络上创建一个子网
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack subnet create --network provider \
--allocation-pool start=192.168.56.100,end=192.168.56.200 \
--dns-nameserver 192.168.56.2 --gateway 192.168.56.2 \
--subnet-range 192.168.56.0/24 provider-subnet
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | 192.168.56.100-192.168.56.200        |
| cidr              | 192.168.56.0/24                      |
| created_at        | 2018-01-22T06:13:27Z                 |
| description       |                                      |
| dns_nameservers   | 192.168.56.2                         |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                 |
| gateway_ip        | 192.168.56.2                         |
| headers           |                                      |
| host_routes       |                                      |
| id                | 5ae96c6c-2295-4cef-8ce5-cc19f4596c90 |
| ip_version        | 4                                    |
| ipv6_address_mode | None                                 |
| ipv6_ra_mode      | None                                 |
| name              | provider-subnet                      |
| network_id        | d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 |
| project_id        | 14055178975d417987c5a94f030c7acf     |
| project_id        | 14055178975d417987c5a94f030c7acf     |
| revision_number   | 2                                    |
| service_types     | []                                   |
| subnetpool_id     | None                                 |
| updated_at        | 2018-01-22T06:13:27Z                 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron subnet-list
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------------------+
| id                                   | name            | cidr            | allocation_pools                          |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------------------+
| 5ae96c6c-2295-4cef-8ce5-cc19f4596c90 | provider-subnet | 192.168.56.0/24 | {"start": "192.168.56.100", "end":        |
|                                      |                 |                 | "192.168.56.200"}                         |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-------------------------------------------+

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron net-list
+--------------------------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------+
| id                                   | name     | subnets                                              |
+--------------------------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------+
| d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 | provider | 5ae96c6c-2295-4cef-8ce5-cc19f4596c90 192.168.56.0/24 |
+--------------------------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------+

创建云主机类型

默认的最小规格的主机需要512MB内存,对于环境中计算节点内存不足4 GB的,我们推荐创建只需要64MB的keywa.com规格的主机。若单纯为了测试的目的,请使用keywa.com规格的主机来加载CirrOS镜像。

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack flavor create --id 0 --vcpus 1 --ram 64 --disk 1 keywa.com
+----------------------------+-----------+
| Field                      | Value     |
+----------------------------+-----------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False     |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0         |
| disk                       | 1         |
| id                         | 0         |
| name                       | keywa.com |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True      |
| properties                 |           |
| ram                        | 64        |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0       |
| swap                       |           |
| vcpus                      | 1         |
+----------------------------+-----------+

创建密钥

  • 导入demo项目凭证
[root@linux-node1 ~]# source demo-openrc
  • 生成和添加秘钥对
[root@linux-node1 ~]# ssh-keygen -q -N ""
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa):
[root@linux-node1 ~]# ls -l .ssh/
total 8
-rw------- 1 root root 1679 Jan 22 14:28 id_rsa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  398 Jan 22 14:28 id_rsa.pub
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack keypair create --public-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub mykey
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                                           |
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| fingerprint | 6d:5f:c6:92:ac:5e:49:40:5c:3e:b4:14:9c:f9:59:8c |
| name        | mykey                                           |
| user_id     | 48cd83bd3ce54b8ebece24680e8c8b0a                |
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+
  • 验证公钥的添加
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack keypair list
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Name  | Fingerprint                                     |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| mykey | 6d:5f:c6:92:ac:5e:49:40:5c:3e:b4:14:9c:f9:59:8c |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+

创建安全组规则

默认情况下,default安全组适用于所有实例并且包括拒绝远程访问实例的防火墙规则。对诸如CirrOS这样的Linux镜像,我们推荐至少允许ICMP (ping))和安全Shell(SSH)规则。

  • 允许ICMP请求
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group rule create --proto icmp default
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| created_at        | 2018-01-22T06:46:59Z                 |
| description       |                                      |
| direction         | ingress                              |
| ethertype         | IPv4                                 |
| headers           |                                      |
| id                | 51ed729f-b268-4a99-b8a6-3a2ba0d31c77 |
| port_range_max    | None                                 |
| port_range_min    | None                                 |
| project_id        | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4     |
| project_id        | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4     |
| protocol          | icmp                                 |
| remote_group_id   | None                                 |
| remote_ip_prefix  | 0.0.0.0/0                            |
| revision_number   | 1                                    |
| security_group_id | 20346c59-a0c4-4cc3-90be-f94c3581edab |
| updated_at        | 2018-01-22T06:46:59Z                 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
  • 允许安全Shell(SSH)的访问
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group rule create --proto tcp --dst-port 22 default
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+
| created_at        | 2018-01-22T06:49:46Z                 |
| description       |                                      |
| direction         | ingress                              |
| ethertype         | IPv4                                 |
| headers           |                                      |
| id                | 950a1be7-6fd3-4c80-ba60-7f4f0b573771 |
| port_range_max    | 22                                   |
| port_range_min    | 22                                   |
| project_id        | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4     |
| project_id        | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4     |
| protocol          | tcp                                  |
| remote_group_id   | None                                 |
| remote_ip_prefix  | 0.0.0.0/0                            |
| revision_number   | 1                                    |
| security_group_id | 20346c59-a0c4-4cc3-90be-f94c3581edab |
| updated_at        | 2018-01-22T06:49:46Z                 |
+-------------------+--------------------------------------+

启动云主机实例

启动一台实例,您必须至少指定一个类型、镜像名称、网络、安全组、密钥和实例名称。

  • 在控制节点上,获得admin凭证来获取只有管理员能执行的命令的访问权限
[root@linux-node1 ~]# source demo-openrc
  • 一个实例指定了虚拟机资源的大致分配,包括处理器、内存和存储

列出可用类型

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack flavor list
+----+-----------+-----+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| ID | Name      | RAM | Disk | Ephemeral | VCPUs | Is Public |
+----+-----------+-----+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| 0  | keywa.com |  64 |    1 |         0 |     1 | True      |
+----+-----------+-----+------+-----------+-------+-----------+

列出可用镜像

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name   | Status |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| cd96090c-87ca-4eb3-b964-a7457639bc1e | cirros | active |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+

列出可用网络

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack network list
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name     | Subnets                              |
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------------------------------------+
| d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 | provider | 5ae96c6c-2295-4cef-8ce5-cc19f4596c90 |
+--------------------------------------+----------+--------------------------------------+

列出可用的安全组

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group list
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name    | Description            | Project                          |
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
| 20346c59-a0c4-4cc3-90be-f94c3581edab | default | Default security group | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4 |
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
  • 启动实例
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server create --flavor keywa.com --image cirros \
--nic net-id=d8acc6f1-8aed-4f7c-a630-83225f592039 --security-group default \
--key-name mykey demo-instance
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| Field                                | Value                                         |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                    | MANUAL                                        |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone          |                                               |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state               | NOSTATE                                       |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state                | scheduling                                    |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                  | building                                      |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at               | None                                          |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at             | None                                          |
| accessIPv4                           |                                               |
| accessIPv6                           |                                               |
| addresses                            |                                               |
| adminPass                            | MowXppdE5ayJ                                  |
| config_drive                         |                                               |
| created                              | 2018-01-22T07:13:02Z                          |
| flavor                               | keywa.com (0)                                 |
| hostId                               |                                               |
| id                                   | 3b5f20c8-8b17-48a2-9b72-70cc74f6fc8f          |
| image                                | cirros (cd96090c-87ca-4eb3-b964-a7457639bc1e) |
| key_name                             | mykey                                         |
| name                                 | demo-instance                                 |
| os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | []                                            |
| progress                             | 0                                             |
| project_id                           | 8a788702c6ea46419bb85b4e4600e3c4              |
| properties                           |                                               |
| security_groups                      | [{u'name': u'default'}]                       |
| status                               | BUILD                                         |
| updated                              | 2018-01-22T07:13:02Z                          |
| user_id                              | 48cd83bd3ce54b8ebece24680e8c8b0a              |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
  • 检查实例的状态,状态为ACTIVE那台虚拟机已经成功创建
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server list
+--------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------------+------------+
| ID                                   | Name          | Status | Networks                | Image Name |
+--------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------------+------------+
| 3b5f20c8-8b17-48a2-9b72-70cc74f6fc8f | demo-instance | ACTIVE | provider=192.168.56.110 | cirros     |
+--------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------------+------------+

验证操作

  • 使用SSH加密连接实例
[root@linux-node1 ~]# ssh cirros@192.168.56.110
The authenticity of host '192.168.56.110 (192.168.56.110)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 2f:58:9f:5e:da:c5:1f:46:43:e1:c4:64:da:ee:2e:e6.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.56.110' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
$ 
  • 验证能否ping通公有网络的网关
$ ping -c 4 114.114.114.114
PING 114.114.114.114 (114.114.114.114): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 114.114.114.114: seq=0 ttl=128 time=29.289 ms
64 bytes from 114.114.114.114: seq=1 ttl=128 time=29.160 ms
64 bytes from 114.114.114.114: seq=2 ttl=128 time=34.413 ms
64 bytes from 114.114.114.114: seq=3 ttl=128 time=29.153 ms

--- 114.114.114.114 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29.153/30.503/34.413 ms
  • 验证能否连接到互联网
$ ping -c 4 www.baidu.com
PING www.baidu.com (14.215.177.39): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 14.215.177.39: seq=0 ttl=128 time=12.611 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.39: seq=1 ttl=128 time=8.424 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.39: seq=2 ttl=128 time=10.575 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.39: seq=3 ttl=128 time=11.595 ms

--- www.baidu.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 8.424/10.801/12.611 ms
  • 使用虚拟控制台访问实例
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack console url show demo-instance
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field | Value                                                                              |
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| type  | novnc                                                                              |
| url   | http://192.168.56.11:6080/vnc_auto.html?token=aff15e93-1ebe-49f3-877b-3213e6faa027 |
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  • 浏览器访问192.168.56.11:6080/vnc_auto.html?token=aff15e93-1ebe-49f3-877b-3213e6faa027
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